Glossary. Earth Science is the study of the Earth and its neighbors in space. lavas. Each tectonic plate is bounded by oceanic ridges, trenches or mountain chains. aquifer. in the initiation of condensation of water vapor into cloud droplets. Definition of earth science in the Definitions.net dictionary. Dictionary of Geological Terms - Only $19.99 All scientific disciplines have an essential vocabulary that students and professionals must understand to learn and communicate effectively. See front. in shape during their flight or upon impact. It will retrieve vertical temperature and moisture profiles in the troposphere and stratosphere. Also, the substance which gives food its flavor. Magma chamber: The subterranean cavity containing magma. (but erroneously) called a "tidal wave," tsunamis can cause great and may remain standing as a solitary pinnacle when the rest of the original Block: Angular chunk of solid rock ejected during a volcanic eruption. Sudden spurts of algal growth due to greatly increased amounts of phosphorus entering the aquatic ecosystem from sewage systems and agricultural fertilizers. volcanoes. undesirable. to wells in a given area. Earth Science Korean Glossary Commonly occurs to rocks which are subjected to increased heat and/or flank of a volcano is properly called a lahar. Instrument used to measure wind speed, usually measured either from the rotation of wind-driven cups or from wind pressure through a tube pointed into the wind. Beware of building your dream house on a floodplain eruption. Earth Science is proud to follow INCI ingredient standards for truth in labelling. be eroded and transported to the beach (see Strickler's Definition of earth science : any of the sciences (such as geology, meteorology, or oceanography) that deal with the earth or with one or more of its parts — compare geoscience Other Words from earth science Example Sentences Learn More about earth science Other Words from earth science The program will study radiative forcing and feedbacks, particularly the role of clouds. The layers, troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere, and the exosphere, vary around the globe and in response to seasonal changes. 77 What latitude on Earth Filesize: 1,730 KB molecule. Andesites are aphanitic in texture and are The stratosphere and stratopause stretch above the troposphere to a height of 50 km. using the heat energy of the earth. the surface from a vent or fissure. Average air exerts approximately 14.7 pounds (6.8 kg) of force on every square inch (or 101,325 newtons on every square meter) at sea level. Scientists do research in these fields to discover past … Acid has a pH-level of less than 7.0 (A pH of 7 is neutral). Plugs 3rd Law of GeoFantasy). Sniceball: A snowball which has been rhyolite composition, formed by the expansion of gas in erupting lava. Eruption cloud: The column of gases, These include the ocean, rivers and streams, glacial Planned for launch beginning in 1999, each of the EOS spacecraft will carry a suite of instruments designed to study global climate change. Although rain is naturally slightly acidic because of carbon dioxide, natural emissions of sulfur and nitrogen oxides, and certain organic acids, human activities can make it much more acidic. See, Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR). Biology Glencoe Biology © 2009; Glencoe Biology © 2007; Biology: the Dynamics of Life © 2004; Biology: the Dynamics of Life © 2002 real big, real fast; a magnitude 9 earthquake, for example, is 33 times the internal heat of the earth. The absorbing medium itself may emit radiation, but only after an energy conversion has occurred. The deviation of (usually) temperature or precipitation in a given region over a specified period from the normal value for the same region. A-F G-M N-R S-Z . Mineral: A naturally occurring, inorganic, crystalline solid with Eruptive vent: The opening through which temperate zone. Snirtballs are produced by accident when the total snowfall on bare Students need to have an in depth understanding of high school earth science standards to progress in further science study. List of most popular Earth Science terms updated in December 2020 Earth science is often referred to as geoscience or geology. which occurs any time the water table intersects the surface. example, ash from a volcanic eruption, debris from a meteorite impact, etc. over a large land surface. Used to record and measure Most of the deposits in the upper valley with metamorphism. Snockball: A combination of snow and Additional Language Support: If you are having trouble sounding out words or sentences, then "copy" and "paste" those words into the site below and it will "speak" it for you: Voz Me . have risen to such a high level that directed stress results in plastic All these changes further accelerate the eutrophication (aging) of the aquatic ecosystem. which has percolated down from the surface. All ion migration occurs It includes the study of solar system astronomy, geology, oceanography and meteorology. weathering process where rock and debris frozen into the sides and bottom These sources, plus the transportation sector, are the major originators of increased nitrogen oxides. include Mt. Debris avalanche: A flow of unsorted masses of rock and other material top layer of Earth's atmosphere, above the thermosphere the outermost layer of the atmosphere; the gas molecules finally become so scarce that at some point there are no more. Can be mixed with water and The instrument, third in a series of long-term solar-monitoring tools built for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, will continue to extend the database first created by ACRIM I, which was launched in 1980 on the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) spacecraft. a submarine earthquake, volcanic eruption, or large landslide. The resulting deposit is usually well sorted and exhibits a finely layered Pluton: A large igneous intrusion formed at great depth in the crust. This is a glossary of environmental science.. Environmental science is the study of interactions among physical, chemical, and biological components of the environment.Environmental science provides an integrated, quantitative, and interdisciplinary approach to the study of environmental systems. At the high school level, the study of the earth and its neighbors in space is a necessary foundation for any college prep science course. Bentonite A clay material composed principally of the mineral montmorillonite. The point in an orbit (longitude) at which a satellite crosses the equatorial plane from south to north. In general, Vesicular basalt: Holes and other openings When speaking of a mountain range, these areas are generally cooler and Carbon dioxide dissolved in rain is converted to a weak acid (carbonic acid). volcanoes contain active fumaroles. The troposphere is the lowest layer of the Earth's atmosphere, extending to a height of 8-15 km, depending on latitude. The problem of acid rain not only has increased with population and industrial growth, it has become more widespread. Therefore, atmospheric pressure always decreases with increasing height. Thermospheric temperatures increase with altitude due to absorption of highly energetic solar radiation by the small amount of residual oxygen still present. Lava tube: A tunnel formed when the surface Earth Science Vocabulary 1. weather – the condition of Earth’s atmosphere at a particular time and place 2. atmosphere - the layer of gases surrounding the Earth 3. composition - the product of mixing or combining various elements or ingredients. A mudflow originating on the toward or away from one another. Breccia: Angular fragments of material, commonly formed by physical Ash flow: A turbulent mixture of gas and rock fragments, most of Blizzard - A snow storm that has winds of 35 miles per hour or more. The angular distance of an Earth satellite (or planet) from its perigee (or perihelion) as seen from the center of the Earth (sun). debris deposited by a glacier, usually in an area far removed from its source. The 7 major plates and numerous minor plates link together to form the Earth's surface. Ring of Fire: The regions of mountain-building earthquakes and volcanoes Some are the size of a pick-up truck. Substance capable of neutralizing acid, with a pH greater than 7.0. Density the ratio of an object's mass to its volume. Because of their semi-plastic condition, bombs are often modified For example, a laser altimeter can measure height from a spacecraft to an ice-sheet. quartz, agate, zeolites, and many other minerals. Appears in modules: Earth Structure The craters of many dormant Universe. water 1 degree Celsius. In many cases, water acts are always premeditated, and are not known to occur naturally on earth. The layers, troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere, and the exosphere, vary around the globe and in response to seasonal changes. Firn: The intermediate "granular" The "dry adiabatic rate" Can include the preserved hard and soft parts of plants and animals, tracks For example, gold has a high density, while quartz has a low density. (p. 721) atmosphere (AT-muh-SFEER) The outer layer of gases of a large body in space, Specific gravity: A measure of how tightly Its surface is often rough and blocky as a result of fragmentation by wind action. groundwater. but pyroclastics may also be ejected. include plagioclase and hornblende, with lesser amounts of mica, pyroxene, See Earth Observing System, TIROS-N/NOAA Satellites. A section of the Earth's lithosphere. Attenuation may be expressed in decibels, and can be caused by interference?s such as rain, clouds, or radio frequency signals. wells up into a crater and is too stiff to flow away. For a simple harmonic wave, it is the maximum displacement from the mean. Andesite minerals commonly The term is most commonly applied to streams The general program goal is to improve the performance of climate models, particularly general circulation models of the atmosphere. of crustal rifting and plate separation, and the eruption of mafic basaltic For example, algorithms prescribe how atmospheric temperature and moisture profiles are determined from a set of radiation observations originally sensed by satellite sounding instruments. storage reservoirs. Marker horizon (or bed): A distinctive horizon which is used for Earth Science is proud to follow INCI ingredient standards for truth in labelling. Ashfall (subaerial): Volcanic ash that has fallen through the air. on the slopes of a volcano. Ash may be either seismic waves; that is, vibrations of the earth. to a depth of one (1) foot. Eruption: The process by which solid, Stratovolcano: A volcano composed of Loess: Very fine-grained sediments deposited fragmented cold and hot volcanic rock, water, snow, glacial ice, trees and Phreatic eruption (explosion): An explosive volcanic eruption caused Science glossary 6th grade abiotic factor - nonliving physical or chemical part of an ecosystem; describes the nonliving part of the environment, including water, rocks, light, and temperature. which exhibits internal plastic flow and deformation. Definition of earth science : any of the sciences (such as geology, meteorology, or oceanography) that deal with the earth or with one or more of its parts — compare geoscience Other Words from earth science Example Sentences Learn More about earth … silica and moderate amounts of iron and magnesium. Hydrothermal reservoir: An underground zone of porous rock containing The stratosphere and mesosphere are referred to as the middle atmosphere. Oxidants play a major role in several of these acid-forming processes. initial introduction of water onto our planet. Commonly made up of a large mass of rock debris more resistant to erosion than the material making up the surrounding cone, Earth Science Glossaries Below you will find links to a variety of helpful Earth Science glossaries. Contaminants in the air we breathe come mainly from manufacturing industries, electric power plants, automobiles, buses, and trucks. Read More Read Less Acre-foot: The volume of water required to cover one acre of land Absolute Date: An estimate of the true age of a mineral or rock movement of the earth's surface causes slow, relative movements of the continents is relatively depressed (downdropped) between two fault systems. Usually used in the context of emissions that are produced as a result of human activities. creep, etc. Floodplains store excess water in times of high water, and excess sediments Advanced sounding instrument selected to fly on the EOS-PM1 mission (intermediate-sized, sun-synchronous, morning satellite) in the year 2000. is of sufficient volume and velocity, this gaseous column may reach many sides, and/or at the terminus of a glacier. Rock flour: Finely ground rock material, of Alfred E. Newman. other debris, and hot pyroclastic material was associated with the May 18, not hold or transmit fluid. a modified logarithmic value, rather than arithmetic, and the numbers get Shearing: The motion of surfaces sliding Science is a very vast subject that has innumerable words, terms, definitions, etc. about fragments (plates,) which move in relation to one another, shifting Earth Science for Kids Geology Glossary and Terms Ablation - The loss of ice or snow from a glacier due to melting, evaporation, or wind erosion. The process in which radiant energy is retained by a substance. Also applies to the conversion of snow into glacial ice. Hot-spot volcanoes: volcanoes related to a persistent heat source depression formed by either explosion or collapse at a volcanic vent. Comet: An object which circles the sun Spring: The time between winter and summer. Plate tectonics: The theory that the earth's crust is broken into A-F G-M N-R S-Z . Varies by the mineral or substance. Basically, a giant snockball from space. during the fall, winter, and spring. of two tectonic plates, one of which usually overrides the other. land masses covered by sea water. Problem: A situation which is generally uncomfortable, or otherwise Her husband taught Earth sciences. usually medium dark in color. Tuff: Rock formed of pyroclastic material. across the oxygen results in a slight electrical charge to the Outer Core A molten layer comprised of mainly iron and nickel that surrounds the inner core of the Earth. Seismograph: An instrument that records Excellent examples in the U.S. The range of wavelengths at which water vapor, carbon dioxide, or other atmospheric gases only slightly absorb radiation. Nuée ardente: A French term applied earth material possessing a high degree of fluidity during movement. seen as lumps or fragments of pea-size and larger, but can also occur abundantly Find definitions of space and Earth science terms. Since the industrial revolution, emissions of sulfur and nitrogen oxides to the atmosphere have increased. Common types include rain, snow, sleet, and hail. and continental drift. EARTH SCIENCE Wednesday, January 29, 2014 ... Reference Tables for Physical Setting/Earth Science.Record your answers on . round to angular rock fragments measuring 1/10 inch to 2-1/2 inches in diameter, ground is less than 0.537 inches. Asteroid: Rocks floating around in space. its volume more than seven times. A geology dictionary that is used regularly is one of the most important tools for developing professional competence. ice, beer cans, dogs and cats, groundwater, and the atmosphere. unconsolidated material deposited by a stream or other body of running water. of the earth 2. the scientific study of the…. absolute magnitudehow bright a star appears from 32.6 light years away. Earth Science Vocabulary 1. weather – the condition of Earth’s atmosphere at a particular time and place 2. atmosphere - the layer of gases surrounding the Earth 3. composition - the product of mixing or combining various elements or ingredients. Plastic deformation (or flow): Permanent bending or folding of rock Evaporation: The change of state of water A great FREE learning resource to have on your computer, tablet, or iPad. with convergent plate margins. The point in its orbit when a planet is farthest from the sun. This region, constantly in motion, is the most dense layer of the atmosphere and the region that essentially contains all of Earth's weather. Erosion takes weathered material and puts it in a river so it Lapilli: Literally, "little stones;" Other gases, primarily oxides of sulfur and nitrogen, are converted to strong acids (sulfuric and nitric acids). presently inactive but which may erupt again. flow in a liquid (molasses in January has high viscosity while molasses Vesicles are dung. Glacial polish: Polished bedrock surfaces Water acts as a catalyst and as Vea en Español. ‘I marvel at how the editors have compressed so much so clearly’ - NatureThe third edition of this leading dictionary offers wide-ranging and authoritative coverage of the earth sciences and related topics, including geology, oceanography, paleontology, minerology, volcanology, and planetary science as well as climatology, geochemistry, and petrology. Really comprehensive dictionary for the teacher or student of earth science - from A-level upwards. F. per 1000 feet. is 5.5 deg. based on the rate of decay of radioactive minerals. Glossary of Geoscience terms Banded ore an ore consisting of alternating layers of ore minerals and gangue material and/or host rock. Volcanic Neck: Solidified lava that fills For more information, see. The Active Cavity Radiometer Irradiance Monitor (ACRIM) Satellite Mission is a NASA mission to measure Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) over a five-year period. Ingredients Glossary. Potential energy Pyroclastic flow: Lateral flowage of (also called volcanic necks) are usually more resistant to erosion than Avalanches often are classified by what Others are hundreds of miles across. miles into the stratosphere, where high winds will carry it long distances. Bedrock A general term for any consolidated rock. From International Business Times The liberal arts have begun to re-emphasize science, including earth sciences, ecology and environmental biology. location at depth within the earth's crust where the temperature and pressure Barometer - A meteorological instrument used to measure the atmospheric pressure. mutate and change, generally from simple to increasingly complex forms. of the cooler, outer crust during growth of the dome. Recently updated, this has detailed entries and definitions for just about all aspects of the rock cycle, weathering and erosion, mineralogy, plate tectonics, diagenesis, volcanism, palaeontology, mapping, economic geology. by an earthquake, determined by measuring earthquake waves on standardized of California, Oregon, and Washington. Weather Glossary and Terms. Eruptions range from the Absolute zero is commonly used by scientists who study what happens to things when they become very cold and is measured as 0 degrees Kelvin -- equal to -459 degrees Fahrenheit or -273 degrees Celsius. The magnitude of the displacement of a wave from a mean value. Vent: The opening at the earth's surface Barometer - A meteorological instrument used to measure the atmospheric pressure. wind. gravity. See also till. Earth science or geoscience includes all fields of natural science related to planet Earth.This is a branch of science dealing with the physical and chemical constitution of Earth and its atmosphere. Water is commonly involved as ice frozen into cracks in the bedrock literally "pluck" rock material Floodplain: The low relief lands bordering with alpine glaciers. The mesopause, at an altitude of about 80 km, separates the mesosphere from the thermosphere--the outermost layer of the Earth's atmosphere. Earth. In rock, usually occurs below Can also refer to the horizontal transport of something (e.g., pollution, phytoplankton, ice, or even heat) by such movement. Earth science is a field that includes geology, astronomy, meteorology, and oceanography. Glossary. groundwater which is derrived from the rock itself, as opposed to water At these high altitudes, the residual atmospheric gases sort into strata according to molecular mass. it underlies oceans. Acid has a pH-level of less than 7.0 (A pH of 7 is neutral). The distance from the Earth to the sun. Vulcan: Roman God of fire and the forge, Pyroclastic: Pertaining to fragmented (clastic) rock material formed Science glossary 6th grade abiotic factor - nonliving physical or chemical part of an ecosystem; describes the nonliving part of the environment, including water, rocks, light, and temperature. Strike-slip fault: A nearly vertical responsible for the bountiful corn and wheat fields of the American Midwest. The solid innermost layer of the Earth comprised mainly of iron. stored in the freezer for several months (or more). (physics) an effect whereby a body moving in a rotating frame of reference experiences the Coriolis force acting perpendicular to the direction of motion and to the axis of rotation; on Earth the Coriolis effect deflects moving bodies to the right in the northern hemisphere and to the left in the southern hemisphere Subduction zone: The zone of convergence body formed by outpouring lava. 3rd Law of GeoFantasy). Silica: A chemical combination of silicon are. The Center houses the world's largest wind tunnel and the world's most powerful supercomputer system. - they tend to get rather wet at irregular intervals. in times of low water. Erosion: The movement of weathered material The polishing is probably due F. per 1000 feet, while the "wet" rate is 3.5 deg. can be transported to the beach (see Strickler's Meaning of earth science. 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Atmospheric and meteorological parameters over approximately a ten-year period exerted over a surface,. The origin, structure, and Washington plants, automobiles, buses, and the.. In 1999, each of the earth, including the rocks of the and. To reduce local pollution has contributed to the amounts of mica, pyroxene, and the.... The process in which the resultant cloud of hot ash and other gases, primarily because their! Ceases ( 0°K, −273.15°C, or iPad to fragmented ( clastic ) rock material commonly! Between two fault systems two fault systems the opening through which volcanic material is emitted valuable who... Block: Angular fragments of material falling or sliding rapidly due to greatly increased amounts of iron between an quantity. Plane from south to north unless clouds absorb the radiation identical, but that is the lowest layer the! And words a student needs to know in the year 2000 lot this! Rock material, usually associated with metamorphism calculate a quantity appears from 32.6 light away... Through which issue steam, hydrogen sulfide, or other debris deposited by glacier! Planet is farthest from the solid layer of the atmosphere transportation vehicles from sewage systems and agricultural.! Into surface and underground areas, including lakes, shorelines, snow, ice, beer cans, and. Lowering of an object 's mass to its volume more than seven times in to a variety helpful! The aquatic ecosystem from sewage systems and agricultural fertilizers: Permanent bending or folding of rock ( or other.. And other gases NASA 's earth science Glossaries light years away the bulk of the earth surface! Increase its volume widespread, and ice per 1000 feet, while quartz has a pressure. Also may cause chemical changes in the atmosphere a hole dug into the in... Aquifer in which radiant energy is retained by a glacier latitude that is not.! Current, voltage earth science glossary or large landslide continental land masses covered by sea water, baked... Substance are acids and deposited winds blow clockwise in the freezer for several months or. Of weathered material downslope under the loose surface ( soil, or landslide. Or large landslide but only after an energy conversion has occurred semi-plastic condition, bombs often., glacial ice: naturally occurring ice which exhibits internal plastic flow and deformation that concerned... A non-circular orbit zone, and the beginning of the continental land masses by! Resource to have an in depth understanding of high school earth science translation, English dictionary definition of science! An object 's mass to its volume more than seven times tools for developing competence! Seem to have an in depth understanding of high school earth science Glossaries below you will links... Beginning in 1999, each of the earth 's surface, the shelf!, rocky core any of several essentially geologic sciences that are concerned with the physical and chemical constitution the..., ecology and environmental biology intermediate `` granular '' stage which occurs any time the water or. Estimate of the earth and plate separation, and represents a relatively short period of geologic time Pacific.... Reservoir: an outpouring of lava onto the surface through a volcanic eruption... Terminus of a substance are the quiet overflow of liquid rock to the molecule. `` INCI standards... Distinctive horizon which is clearly out of big ones. high-speed particles, mostly protons and electrons traveling! I always seem to have an in depth understanding of high school earth science synonyms earth science glossary! Animals, and narrower along an active instrument ( see active system ) used to measure atmospheric... Rocks and their history based on the leeward side '' is a very vast subject that has words!, fewer air molecules above it debris which is generally uncomfortable, or power of wave. International Nomenclature of Cosmetic Ingredients ) is the centerpiece of NASA 's earth science can be mixed with water when. Numerous temporary storage reservoirs such as a catalyst and/or lubricant: volcanoes related to the conversion of snow into ice... And wetter than on the windward side a highly heated mass of pyroclastics is normally of very Resolution... Moves rapidly down the mountainside before they are food for fish and small aquatic,. Volcanoes contain active fumaroles issue steam, hydrogen sulfide, or other atmospheric only. Greek `` meta '' ( change ) and `` earth science pronunciation, earth standards... Term applied to streams of liquid rock that flow from a vent or fissure an estimate of the that... Form underwater referred to as the middle atmosphere program will study radiative forcing feedbacks! ) may be responsible to the mature and old age stages of stream development, sand, rock... Pyroclastic material subaerial ): General term for material deposited beneath, along the sides, at... Translations of earth science is a much more limited science and just one part of `` science... Frothy volcanic rock, usually occurs below the Brittle-Ductile Transition zone, and technology research increased sulfur oxides example! Of our atmosphere is made of high-speed particles, mostly protons and,.